Advanced dependency mocking device.

3.13.7  •  Updated 1 years ago  •  by Anton Korzunov  •  MIT License

                     /$$      /$$ /$$                     /$$      /$$                     /$$      
                    | $$  /$ | $$|__/                    | $$$    /$$$                    | $$      
  /$$$$$$   /$$$$$$ | $$ /$$$| $$ /$$  /$$$$$$   /$$$$$$ | $$$$  /$$$$  /$$$$$$   /$$$$$$$| $$   /$$
 /$$__  $$ /$$__  $$| $$/$$ $$ $$| $$ /$$__  $$ /$$__  $$| $$ $$/$$ $$ /$$__  $$ /$$_____/| $$  /$$/
| $$  \__/| $$$$$$$$| $$$$_  $$$$| $$| $$  \__/| $$$$$$$$| $$  $$$| $$| $$  \ $$| $$      | $$$$$$/ 
| $$      | $$_____/| $$$/ \  $$$| $$| $$      | $$_____/| $$\  $ | $$| $$  | $$| $$      | $$_  $$ 
| $$      |  $$$$$$$| $$/   \  $$| $$| $$      |  $$$$$$$| $$ \/  | $$|  $$$$$$/|  $$$$$$$| $$ \  $$
|__/       \_______/|__/     \__/|__/|__/       \_______/|__/     |__/ \______/  \_______/|__/  \__/

Build Status coverage-badge version-badge Greenkeeper badge

Dependency mocking, inspired by the best libraries:

  • mockery - rewiremock is a better mockery, with the same interface.
  • proxyquire - rewiremock is a better proxyquire, with the same interface.
  • mock-require - things must not be complex, rewiremock is not.
  • jest.mocks - Jest is awesome. As well as rewiremock.

Rewiremock is a better version of your favorite library__. For mocha, ava, karma, and anything not-jest.

By desing rewiremock has same behavior as Mockery. But it can behave like other libraries too, exposing handly interfaces to make mocking a joy. Support type-safe mocking and provides TS/Flow types for itself.

Quick start

1. Install

  • yarn add --dev rewiremock or npm i --save-dev rewiremock

2. Setup

I would recoment not to import rewiremock directly in tests, but create rewiremock.js and require it - that would let you to tune rewiremock, if you need it.

for ts/es6/esm use import

// rewiremock.es6.js
import rewiremock from 'rewiremock';
/// settings
rewiremock.overrideEntryPoint(module); // this is important
export { rewiremock }

for commonjs/nodejs use require('rewiremock/node')

// rewiremock.cjs.js
const rewiremock = require 'rewiremock/node';
/// settings
rewiremock.overrideEntryPoint(module); // this is important
module.exports = rewiremock;

for webpack

// rewiremock.es6.js
import rewiremock from 'rewiremock/webpack';
/// settings
rewiremock.overrideEntryPoint(module); // this is important
export { rewiremock }

If you import rewiremock dirrectly from your tests - you dont need overrideEntryPoint

3. Use

There are 3 ways to mock, all with some pros and cons.

proxyquire - like

Simplest one.

 const file = rewiremock.proxy('file.js', {
   'dependency':  stub
 // or
 const file = rewiremock.proxy(() => require('file.js'), {
    'dependency':  stub

mockery - like

Most powerfull one

 rewiremock(() => require('dependency')).with(stub);
 const file = require('file.js');

jest - like

Shortest one

 // just place it next to `imports` and add a rewiremock/babel plugin 

4. Tune

There is a plenty of plugins to make your life easier. For example - this is my favorite setup

import { resolve } from 'path';
import rewiremock, { addPlugin, overrideEntryPoint, plugins } from 'rewiremock';
import { configure } from 'rewiremock/lib/plugins/webpack-alias'; // could be better


// we need webpack aliases
// and all stub names would be a relative
// and all stubs should be used. Lets make it default!

export { rewiremock };

What command to use???!!!

// use `require` instead of just filename to maintain type information
const mock = rewiremock.proxy(() => require('somemodule'), r => {
   'dep1': { name: 'override' },
   // use all power of rewiremock to mock something as you want...
   'dep2': r.with({name: 'override' }).toBeUsed().directChildOnly(), // use all `mocking API`

There is two important things here:

  • you can use require or import to specify file to require and file to mock. This helps to resolve file names and maintain type information(if you have it). See Guided Mocking bellow.
  • you can mix simplified helpers (like .proxy) and the main API.

ESM modules

In case to support ESM modules(powered by @std/ESM, not native modules) you have to use import command.

  • use .module - an “async” version of .proxy
const mock = await rewiremock.module(() => import('somemodule'), {...});
  • or just use import - that would
rewiremock(() => require('xxx').with({});

const file = await import('somemodule');

Ok! Let’s move forward!


main API

  • rewiremock.enable() - wipes cache and enables interceptor.
  • rewiremock.disable() - wipes cache and disables interceptor.
  • rewiremock.around(loader, creator):Promise< T > - loads a module in an asynchronous sandbox.
  • rewiremock.proxy(file, stubs):T - proxyquire like mocking api, where file is file name, and stubs are an object or a function.
  • rewiremock.module(loader, stubs):Promise< T > - async version of proxy, where loader is a function.

mocking API

  • rewiremock(moduleName: string) - fabric for a moduleNames’s mock
  • rewiremock(moduleImport: loader) - async fabric for a module import function.
    • .enable/disable() - to enable or disable mock (enabled by default).
    • .with(stubs: function | Object) - overloads module with a value
    • .withDefault(stub: function | Object) - overload default es6 export
    • .es6() - marks module as ES6( __esModule )
    • .by(otherModule: string| function) - overload by another module(if string provider) or by result of a function call.
    • .callThrough() - first load the original module, and next extend it by provided stub.
    • .mockThrough([stubFactory]) - first load the original module, and then replaces all exports by stubs.
    • .dynamic() - enables hot mock updates.
    • .toBeUsed() - enables usage checking.
    • .directChildOnly - will do mock only direct dependencies.
    • .calledFromMock - will do mock only dependencies of mocked dependencies.
  • rewiremock.getMock(moduleName: string|loader) - returns existing mock (rewiremock(moduleName) will override)

isolation API

  • rewiremock.isolation() - enables isolation
  • rewiremock.withoutIsolation() - disables isolation
  • rewiremock.passBy(pattern or function) - enables some modules to pass throught isolation.


  • rewiremock.inScope(callback) - place synchronous callback inside a sandbox.

helper functions

  • rewiremock.stubFactory(factory) - define a stub factory for mockThrough command.


Rewiremock supports (inspired by Jest) auto __mocks__ing.

Just create __mocks__/fileName.js, and fileName.js will be replaced by mock. Please refer to Jest documentation for use cases.

If you dont want some file to be replaced by mock - add it, and then - disable


Which API to use?

Yep - there is 4 top level ways to activate a mock - inScope, around, proxy or just enable.

A common way to mock.

Rewiremock provides lots of APIs to help you setup mock, and get the mocked module.

  • If everything is simple - use rewiremock.proxy. (~proxyquire)
  • If you have issues with name resolve - use rewiremock.module and resolve names by yourself.
  • If you need scope isolation - use rewiremock.around, or inScope.
  • If you need advanced syntax and type checking - use rewiremock.around.
  • You always can just use .enable/.disable (~ mockery).

All the mocks await you to provide “stubs” to override the real implimentation. If you want just to ensure you have called endpoints – use rewiremock(‘someFile’).mockThrough.


  • proxy will load a file by it’s own ( keep in mind - name resolution is a complex thing)
const mock = rewiremock.proxy('somemodule', (r) => ({
   'dep1': { name: 'override' },
   'dep2': r.with({name: 'override' }).toBeUsed().directChildOnly(), // use all `mocking API`
   'dep3': r.mockThrough() // automatically create a test double  
  • you can require a file by yourself. ( yep, proxy is a “god” function)
const mock = rewiremock.proxy(() => require('somemodule'), {
   'dep1': { name: 'override' },
   'dep2': { onlyDump: 'stubs' }  
  • or use es6 import (not for node.js mjs real es6 modules) module is an async version of proxy, so you can use imports
const mock = await rewiremock.module(() => import('somemodule'), {
   'dep1': { name: 'override' },
   'dep2': { onlyDump: 'stubs' }  
  • around - another version of .module, where you can do just anything.
const mock = await rewiremock.around(() => import('somemodule'), () => {
   // prepare mocking behavior
  • enable/disable - Low level API
  // require something

In all the cases you can specify what exactly you want to mock, or just mock anything


Hoisted mocking

You can also use a top level mocking, the same as Jest could only provide

import sinon from 'sinon';
import rewiremock from 'rewiremock';
import Component1 from 'common/Component1';
import selectors from 'common/selectors';

rewiremock('common/Component2/action').with({ action: () => {} });
rewiremock('common/selectors').mockThrough(() => sinon.stub());

selectors.findUser.returns("cat"); // this is sinon stub.

As result Component1 will be replaced by Component2, action with empty function and all selectors by sinon stubs, with one configured.

This is only possible via babel plugin, and without it this code will be executed without any sence, as long mocking will be configured after the files required.


  • Other babel plugins, including JSX, does not work inside webpack hoisted code. But you may define any specific code in a “functions”, and let JavaScript to hoist it.
  • Most of variables, you have define in the file, are not visible to hoisted code, as long they are not yet defined. Only functions would be hoisted.
  1. Add rewiremock/babel into plugin section in .babelrc
// .babelrc
  "presets": [
  "plugins": [
  1. This example will be transpiled into
import sinon from 'sinon';
import rewiremock from 'rewiremock';

rewiremock('common/Component2/action').with({ action: () => {} });
rewiremock('common/selectors').mockThrough(() => sinon.stub());

// "function" would be hoisted by js itself
function ComponentMock({children}) { return <div>mock!</div>; }


import Component1 from 'common/Component1';
import selectors from 'common/selectors';


selectors.findUser.returns("cat"); // this is sinon stub.

Keep in mind - rewiremock will hoist mock definition next to rewiremock import.

  • You can use anything above rewiremock import
  • You can mock anything below rewiremock import

Changing the mocks after the mocking

It is possible to partially change mocking already being applied.

  .with({ action1: action1Stub1 })

 const foo = require('./foo');
 foo.action == action1Stub1;
   .with({ action1: action1Stub2 });
 //while will RESET the mock, and could not change existing ones.
    .with({ action1: action1Stub2 });
 foo.action == action1Stub2;
    .with({ });
 foo.action == theRealFoo;

Changing the hoisted mocks

 import rewiremock from 'rewiremock';
 import foo from './foo';
   .with({ action1: action1Stub1 })

 const fooMock = rewiremock.getMock('./foo');
 describe(..., () => {
   it('...', () => {
     fooMock.with({ });
     // while may NOT found the mock
     rewiremock.getMock('./foo').with({ });

Guided mocking

You may use require or import to let IDE help you to properly write fileName, and hide all filename resolution and transformation behind the scenes. But there are things you have to keep in mind

  1. Resolution of synchronous API happens on .enable
rewiremock(() => require('./fileToMock1')); // this mock would work
rewiremock(() => require('./fileToMock2')); //this mock WOULD NOT WORK!
  1. Using async API will throw an error
rewiremock(() => import('./fileToMock1'));  
rewiremock.enable(); // this is an exception
  1. Async API requires async API
rewiremock.module( () => import('file')) // this is ok
rewiremock.around(..., rw => rw.mock(() => import('file2'))) // this is ok

Type safety

Rewiremock is able to provide a type-safe mocks. To enable type-safety follow these steps:

  1. Use TypeScript or Flow.
  2. Use dynamic import syntax.
  3. Use rewiremock.around or rewiremock.module to perform a mock.
  4. Use async form of rewiremock mock declaration.
// @flow

import rewiremock  from 'rewiremock';

  () => import('./a.js'), 
  mock => {
  mock(() => import('./b.js'))
    .withDefault(() => "4")
    .with({testB: () => 10})
    .nonStrict() // turn off type system
    .with({ absolutely: "anything" })

If default export is not exists on module ‘b’, or there is no named export testB, or types do not match - type system will throw.

If you will declare an async mock, you it will not be resolved by the time of execution - Rewiremock will throw on Error.

If you have async imports inside mocked file, follow this syntax

  () => import('./a.js'), 
  mock => {
  // just before loader function rewiremock enabled itself
  mock(() => import('./b.js').then(mock=>mock)) // mocks `live` one `tick` more
  // just after loader function resolved rewiremock disables itself
    mock => {

Type safety for JavaScript

Rewiremock can check mock against the real implementation. This does not perform type checking, but could check exported names and exported types (function vs number, for example).

Rewiremock expects that mock will be less or equal than original file.

rewiremock: mocked export "somethingMissing" does not exists in ./b.js
rewiremock: exported type mismatch: ./b.js:default. Expected function, got number

To activate exports comparison

   .toMatchOrigin(); // to activate
// or
import rewiremock, { addPlugin, removePlugin, plugins } from 'rewiremock';


To run with node.js

Just use it. You can also activate nodejs, which will double check all modules names on a real FS, but… everything might work out of the box.

PS: Just use usedByDefault to ensure module names are resolved correctly.

There is also a special entry point for node.js, with nodejs plugin activated, and rewiremock as es5 export

const rewiremock = require('rewiremock/node');

// meanwhile
const rewiremock = require('rewiremock').default;

To run inside webpack enviroment.

Rewiremock can emulate few webpack features(like aliases) in node.js environment, but it also can be run inside webpack.

Actually rewiremock is the first client side mocking library

But not so fast, hanny. First you have to have 3(!) Plugins enabled.

  1. webpack.NamedModulesPlugin(). To enlight the real names of modules, not “numbers”. Enabled by default in webpack “dev” mode
  2. webpack.HotModuleReplacementPlugin(). To provide some information about connections between modules. Might be (and usually) already enabled, double activation of this plugin might broke everything.
  3. rewiremock.webpackPlugin. To add some magic and make gears rolling.
plugins: [
    new webpack.NamedModulesPlugin(),
    new webpack.HotModuleReplacementPlugin(),
    new (require("rewiremock/webpack/plugin"))()

That’s all. Now all magic will happens at client side.

It is better to use .proxy/module command with direct require/import and leave all names conversion to webpack.


For better dev experience include special configuration of webpack

import rewiremock from 'rewiremock/webpack';

webpack troubleshooting

Currently there are 2 known problems, both for mocha+webpack, ie using nodejs to run webpack bundle:

  • TypeError: Cannot read property ‘webpackHotUpdate’ of undefined

    Caused by babel. Just dont use babel then running webpack bundles. Use babel them creating bundled.

  • TypeError: Cannot read property ‘call’ of undefined

    Caused by webpack. Sometimes is does not include some important files. To solve this problem just import('rewiremock/webpack/interceptor') in scaffolding. The problem is simply - this file does not exists in the bundle.

To actually… mock

First - define your mocks. You can do it in any place, this is just a setup.

 import rewiremock from 'rewiremock';
 // totaly mock `fs` with your stub 
        readFile: yourFunction
 // replace path, by other module 
 // replace enzyme by preconfigured one  (from
     .by(({requireActual}) => {
    // see rest of possible params in d.ts file
         const enzyme = requireActual('enzyme');         
         if (!mockSetup) {
           const chai = requireActual('chai');
           const chaiEnzyme = requireActual('chai-enzyme');
         return enzyme;
 // replace default export of ES6 module 
 // replace only part of some library and keep the rest 
 // secure yourself and from 'unexpected' mocks


There is a simply way to do it: Just enable it, and dont forget to disable it later.

 //in mocha tests
 beforeEach( () => rewiremock.enable() );
 // here you will get some advantage in type casting and autocompleting.
 // it will actually works...
 const someModule = require('someModule'); 
 afterEach( () => rewiremock.disable() );

Once enabled, rewiremock will wipe all mocked modules from cache, and all modules which require them.

Including your test.

Once disabled it will restore everything.

All unrelated to test dependencies will be kept. Node modules, react, common files - everything.

As result - it will run faster.


Sometimes you will have independent tests in a single file, and you might need separate mocks for each one. inScope execute callback inside sandbox, and all mocks or plugins or anything else you have added will not leaks away.

 rewiremock.inScope( () => {
   // is 'something' mocked? Yes
   // is 'something' mocked? No
   // is it still listed as mock? Yes
 // is 'something' mocked or listed? No


And there is a bit harder way to do it - scope. inScope will create new internal scope, next you can add something new to it, and then it will be destroyed. It will also enable/disable rewiremock just in time.

This helps keep tests in isolation.

PS: scopes are nesting each other like javascript prototypes do.

    () => import('somemodule'), // load a module. Using import or require.
    // just before it you can specify mocks or anything else
    (mock) => { 

        mock('./lib/a/foo').with(() => 'aa');
        mock('./lib/a/../b/bar').with(() => 'bb');
        mock('./lib/a/../b/baz').with(() => 'cc');
) // at this point scope is dead
    .then((mockedBaz) => { 

or just

rewiremock.around(() => import('somemodule')).then(mockedModule => doSomething)  


    () => import('somemodule').then( mockedModule => doSomething),    
    (mock) => aPromise   

Currently .inScope is the only API capable to handle es6(not node [m]js!) dynamic imports.


Sometimes it is much easier to combine all the things together.

// preferred way - crete stubs using a function, where R is mock creator
rewiremock.proxy('somemodule', (r) => ({
   'dep1': { name: 'override' },
   'dep2': r.with({name: 'override' }).toBeUsed().directChildOnly() // same powerfull syntax

// straight way - just provide stubs.
rewiremock.proxy('somemodule', {
   'dep1': { name: 'override' },
   'dep2': { name: 'override' }


By default - rewiremock has limited features. You can extend its behavior via plugins.

  • relative. A bit simply, proxyquire-like behavior. Will override only first level deps, and will wipe a lot of modules from a cache.
  • nodejs. Common support to usual node.js application. Will absolutize all paths. Will wipe cache very accurately.
  • webpack-alias. Enabled you to use webpack aliases as module names.
  • childOnly. Only first level dependencies will be mocked.
  • protectNodeModules. Ensures that any module from node_modules will not be wiped from a cache.
  • toBeUsed. Adds feature. The only plugin enabled by default.
  • disabledByDefault. All mocks will be disabled on create and at the end of each cycle.
  • mockThroughByDefault. All mocks mocked through.
  • usedByDefault. All mocks to be used by fact (reverse isolation)
import rewiremock, { addPlugin, removePlugin, plugins } from 'rewiremock';     


Nested declarations

If you import rewiremock from other place, for example to add some defaults mocks - it will not gonna work. Each instance of rewiremock in independent. You have to pass your instance of rewiremock to build a library. PS: note, rewiremock did have nested API, but it were removed.


Unit testing requires all dependencies to be mocked. All! To enable it, run


Then active - rewiremock will throw error on require of any unknown module.

Unknown is module which is nor mocked, nor marked as pass-through.

To make few modules to be invisible to rewiremock, run

rewiremock.passBy(/*pattern or function*/);

rewiremock.passBy((name) => name.indexOf('.node')>=0 )

Reverse isolation

Sometimes you have to be sure, that you mock is actually was called. Isolation will protect you then you add new dependencies, .toBeUsed protect you from removal.


Jest is a very popular testing framework, but it has one issue - is already contain mocking support.

Do not use rewiremock and jest. Even if it is possible.

Jest will not allow ANY other mocking library to coexists with Jest

To use rewiremock with Jest add to the beginning of your file

// better to disable automock

// Jest breaks the rules, and you have to restore nesting of a modules.

// There is no way to use overload by Jest require or requireActual.
// use the version provided by rewiremock. 
require = rewiremock.requireActual;

!!! the last line here may disable Jest sandboxing. !!!

Also it will disable Jest transformation, killing all the jest magics.

To be able continue use ES6/imports - you have to enforce Babel to be applied in the common way.

describe('block of tests', () => {
  // require babel-register in describe or it block.
  // NOT! On top level. Jest sandboxing and isolation are still in action,
  // and will reset all settings to default

PS: Jest will set BABEL_ENV to test.

It is better just to use rewiremock.requireActual, without overriding global require.

Your own setup.

In most cases you have to:

  • add plugin
  • setup default passBy rules
  • add some common mocks
  • do something else.

And it is not a good idea to do it in every test you have.

It is better to have one setup file, which will do everything for you

  • Part 1 - man in the middle
  // this is your test file
  // instead of importing original file - import your own one
  // import rewiremock from 'rewiremock';
  import rewiremock from 'test/rewiremock';    
  • Part 2 - create your own one
    // this tests/rewiremock.js
    import rewiremock, { addPlugin, overrideEntryPoint} from 'rewiremock';
    // do anything you need
    // but don't forget to add some magic
    overrideEntryPoint(module); // <-- set yourself as top module
    // PS: rewiremock will wipe this module from cache to keep magic alive.
    export default rewiremock;
  • Part 3 - enjoy. You extract some common code into helper. And things become a lot easier.

Default configuration

Absolutely the same - preconfiguring rewiremock one can achive via default configuration.

Just put rewiremock.config.js in the root dir, next to project.json, and export a configuration function

// rewiremock.config.js
import wrongrewiremock, {plugins} from 'rewiremock';

export default rewiremock => {
  // do everything with "right" rewiremock


Default cache policy follow these steps:

  1. Preparation:
  • all files required from original test, while interceptor is active, will bypass cache.
  • all files you indicate as mocks will be removed from the cache.
  • all “soiled” files which rely on mocks - will also be removed from the cache.
  • repeat .
  1. Finalization
  • repeat all mocks, and possible “soiled” by mocks files.
  • copy over the old cache.
  • or restore the old cache complitely if forceCacheClear mode is set.

The last variant is default for proxyquire and mockery, also it is more sequre from different side effects. Regardless, default is the first variant - as a way faster, and secure enough.

As result of this mocking strategy you can mock any file at any level, while keeping another files cached.


If you don’t want this - just add relative plugin. It will allow mocking only for modules

required from module with parent equals entryPoint.

PS: module with parent equals entryPoint - any module you require from test(it is an entry point). required from that module - first level require. Simple.

Own plugins

Don’t forget - you can write your own plugins. plugin is an object with fields:

// to transform name. Used by alias or node.js module
fileNameTransformer: (fileName, parentModule) => fileName;
// check should you wipe module or not. Never used :)
wipeCheck: (stubs, moduleName) => boolean,
// check is mocking allowed for a module. User in relative plugin
shouldMock: (mock, requestFilename, parentModule, entryPoint) => boolean


Rewiremock will automatically try to resolve file

  • by specified name
  • adding .js, .jsx, .ts, .tsx, .mjs
  • you can override defaults
import {resolveExtensions} from 'rewiremock';
resolveExtensions(['.wasm', '.mjs', '.js', '.json']);

resolveExtensions is quite similar to webpack’s resolve extensions.

Not working?

If something is not working - just check that you:

  • added a plugin to transform names (nodejs, webpackAlias or relative)
  • use .toBeUsed for each mocks And they actually were mocked. If not - rewiremock will throw an Error.


  • give ability to mock everything - CommonJS, ES6, inside nodejs or webpack.
  • give ability to do correctly - isolation, typechecking, powerfull API
  • give ability to do it easy - simple API to cover all the cases.

Wanna read something about?

Rewiremock - medium article all by tag



Happy mocking!


Weekly Downloads



Last ver 1 year ago
Created 3 years ago
Last commit 5 months ago
4 days between commits


Node version: 10.9.0
191.8K unpacked


MIT License
OSI Approved
0 vulnerabilities


18 contributors
Anton Korzunov
Maintainer, 200 commits, 28 merges, 6 PRs
Works at atlassian
6 commits, 4 PRs
6 commits
Zhibin Liu
3 commits, 1 PRs
Works at Google
Paweł Kapalla
2 commits, 1 PRs
Works at xcaliber-tech
2 commits, 1 PRs
Works at dappnode


dependency injection
mock dependency
Openbase helps developers choose among and use millions of open-source packages, so they can build amazing products faster.
© 2020 Devstore, Inc.